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Shada Darshana

Shada Darshana

Shada Darshana

Introduction

Introduction: 
   

Shaddarshan represents ancient Hindu philosphy. Vedic text are its base and they draw authencity from them. As such they are also called Astik darshan. However few of these six darshans do not believe in authority of god but belief in Vedas was the original base for astik darshan in ancient times.

    

The ideas and thought associated with soul, god, universe birth, death etc. are found in vedas. Its embryonic development is seen in Brahamanas and upnishad. this embryo latter became the base for six astic darshan after its development. The time period between 1500-600 BC as considered as the time of development of these thoughts.

    

Shankya darshan as propounded by Kapil Muni is considered fore most  among all Shad Darshana. 700 BC is considered its time period. Kapil Muni is also regarded as first Philospher of India. This philosphy belives in Vedas but do not considered God as creator of universe.

    

Shankya Darshan basically accept the elements of purush and prakriti among them akash etc, five Bhuls and Eleven Indians have been addressed as prakriti and considers that whole universe to be originated from these. According to this prakriti develops due to three qualities – sat, Raj and tam.

    
The impact of this philosphy could be seen on Jain philosphy and Bhagwat Geeta. Lord Krishna is considered as the earliest commentator of this philosphy. he had composed a text namely Shankyakarika and his time period is considered near to 100 AD.
    
Maharishi Patanjali had propounded yoga darshan its base is his famous composition, yoga sutra according to darshan shastra true knowledge of so as called yoga. This philosphy believes in authority of god, his supreme form besides soul and nature.
    
According to this yoga has two parts – Raj yoga and Hath yoga. The original base of Raj yoga lies in Vedantas were as tantra. Shartra is considerd as base of Hath Yoga. Maharishi Patanjali has described that there are eight steps (Charan) of yogas – Yam, Niyam, Aashan, Pranayam, Pratayahar, Dharna, Dhyan and samidhi – popularly these are called ashatang yoga.
    

The seedlings of these darshan could be seen in several upnishad like swetaswatar, Three pathways are considered of yoga – Gyan yoga (based on logies), Bhakti yoga (based on emotion). In the latter period 5th influence could be seen on Budh philosphy.

    

Nayaya darshan stands third in the series of Shad Darshan. It was propounded by Gautam rishi who is also known by the name akshapad. His text Nayay Sutra is base for this philosphy. It considers that there is authority of god. God is one and god can be obtained only through the medium of true knowledge.

    

Indeed the main aim of this philospy is to support vedic knowledge and philosphy and to clarify different darshan as like budh darshan, Vatsyan (Pakshil wamin) is considered a Chief Commentator of this philosphy. this philosphy was dissected into two parts in 12 century – Prachin Darshan and Navin Darshan. Presently Navin Nayay Darshan has been recognised most.

    
Vaisheshik Darshan is also called anudarshan and it was propounded by Maharishi Kanad. His book Vaisheshek Sutra is the main base of this philosphy. It is said that Maharishi Kanad used to spent his life by Choosing grains. 3rd century B.C. is considered as his time period.
    

According to this philosphy, all objects of the would is included in only seven substances – Pravya, Guna, Karma, Samanya, Vishesh and abhava. Classification of substances and principle of atomic weight are the greatest gift of this philosphy, universe has been created from Prithivi, Vayu, Jal, and tej as per this philosphy.

    

 This philosphy was very much popular in Gupta age during this period Prashasta Pad (six century AD) made this philosphy very popular by writeing own composition. This philosphy belives that soul is immortal and of as not destroyed in the period of doomsday on ten century famous commentators like adyan and Sridhar did the work of development of this philosphy.

    
Poorva mimansa is the philosphy completely based on Vedas Sanhita and Brahaman text are its base. Maharishi Gemini is considered as propounder of this philosphy. According to tradtional belief, Gemini was a disciple of Maharishi Vyas and had compiled Samveda although most of the historians considered this a composition of fourth century B.C.
    
This philosphy divides human actions into two forms – Nitya Karma and Katya Karma. It believes that vedas are in humane. It is considered Gemini Rishi had propounded this philosphy while reacting to Budh religion and had compiled Karmamimansa sutra.
    
This philosphy had been in continuous controversy with the philosphy thought of atheistism (related to Nastic ideology) so much so that it was dead against nyay philosphy. Sabar Swamin became Chief exponent of it in 6th century AD (Gupta age).
    
The last philosphic among Sad Darshan is uttarmimansa also called vendata darshan knowledgte of upnishad is main base of this philosphy. Vyas (Badrayan) is considered as it main propounder according to him this world is a complete illusion (Maya) and god stands behind all wonders of the world and this is true.
    
The main base of vedanga darshan is the book of Badrayan, Bramahan Sutra also called vendata sutra. Which is composed in four chapters containing 555 sutras. The first chapter of this book is Samanyaya which includes coordination between several, second chapter is named – Awaradh.
    
In the third cahpter Sadhan, description have been made on features of animal and Brahama were as infal that is fourth Chapter description is related with Shagun and Nirgun worship and Mikta Purush.
    
This Philosphy was explained in 6th century AD while Godiya path. Adiguru Shankracharya is credited for making it. So popular and he gave the concept of Adawitvad only on this basis. His Brahamsutra Bhaya is considered most authentic commentry. Vedanta darshan develop in later years is also main basis for latter developed Vishistha adawit, Sudhadwait, Dwaitadwait etc.
    
These Shad Darshans are the Chief Skeleton of Indian philosphical tradition. Latter six Nastik philosphy were propounded agaisnt these Shad Darshan – Charwak, jain, Vaibhasik, Sautrantik, Yogacharya, Madhaymik and Sunyavad. Four of them except first two are the parts of Budhist philosphi. Inspite of all these ancient philosphical system have been successful in establishing there relevance till today.